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EYE ADVICE: Professional Papers



- Abrahamsson M Fabian G Sjorstrand (1988) Changes in astigmatism between the ages of 1 and 4 years: a longitudinal study. Br J Ophthalmol 72:145-149.

- Bannon R and Walsh R (1945) On astigmatism - Part III - Subjective tests. Amer J Optom and Arch Am Acad Optom 22:210.

- Beau Seigneur W (1946) Changes in power and axis of cylindrical errors after convergence. Amer J Optom and Arch Am Acad Optom 23(3):113.

- Borish I M (1970) Clinical refraction Chicago (The professional Press Inc) Ed 3.

- Brzezinski M A (1982) Review: Astigmatic Accommodation (Sectional Accommodation) - a  form of dynamic astigmatism. Aust J Optom 65(1):5-11.

- Fick A (1889) Arch Ophth XVIII pp292.

- Fletcher R J (1951) Astigmatic accommodation. Brit J Physiol Opt  8(2):73-94

- Fulton A Hansen R Petersen R (1982) The relation of myopia and astigmatism in developing eyes Ophthalmology 89:298-302.

- Hofstetter H W and Baldwin W (1957) Bilateral correlation of residual astigmatism Amer J Opom Acad Optom 34:388-391.

- Kabe S (1968) Acta Soc Ophthal Jap 72:1-8.

- Lawrence L (1920) Visual Optics and sight testing p142.

- Marquez M (1942) The great usefulness of bicylindric combinations in the exploration of astigmatism Am J Oph 25:1458.

- Tabin G C et al (1996) Astigmatic changes 1 year after excimer laser treatment of myopia and myopic astigmatism. J Cataract Refract Surg 22:924-930.

- Takayama H (1974) Effects of spectacles correcting corneal astigmatism on the refractive components. (Japanese with English summary) Acta Soc Ophthal Jap 78:220-236.

- Ukai K and Ichihashi Y (1991) Changes in ocular astigmatism over the whole range of accomodation  Optometry and vision science 68(10):813-818

- Weisz C L (1978) Induced against the rule astigmatism in accommodative disorders J Amer Optom Assoc 49:335-336.

- Williams O A (1959) Astigmatic accommodation The Aust J Optom 42 (4-5):182-184.

- Williams O A (1963) Latent astigmatism in practice. Amer J Optom and Arch Am Acad Optom 40:143-147.

- Yamanaka T (1961) Correlation between tonus of ciliary muscle and astigmatism of cornea  Acta Soc Ophtahl Jap  65:396-408.






Paper 1 - Meridional (Astigmatic) Accommodation  Abstract

Physiology of Meridional Accommodation (A) Ciliary Muscle Action and Innervations
(B) Corneal Changes due to Ciliary Muscle Action
(C) Theory of Initiation of Meridional Accommodation

Clinical Implications of Meridional Accommodation


(A) Astigmatic Changes Related to WTR Corneal Toricity (i) Latent Astigmatism
(ii) Primary Accommodative Astigmatism (PAA)       (B) Reflex or 2°PMA and Induced ATR Astigmatic Changes
(C) Eye Preference and Meridional Accommodation (i) 1° PMA and Eye Preference
(ii) 2° PMA and Eye Preference (D) Proactive Prescribing for Presbyopia (i) Phakic Presbyopes
(ii) Pseudophakes and ATR Corneal Changes (E) Refractive Techniques and MA (i) Balancing Meridional Accommodation
(ii) Binocular Test of Cylinder Power (F) Further Clinical Subject Areas and Meridional Accommodation (i) Preventing Induced Oblique Astigmatism in Children
(ii) Low Vision
(iii) Keratoconus
(iv) Hard Contact Lenses
(v) PRK and PARK (Photorefractive Astigmatic Keratectomy)



Paper 2 - Common Chronic (Infective) Conjunctivitis and Nasal Rinsing

Paper 3 - Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma

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