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EYE ADVICE: Professional Papers


(iii) Keratoconus

The irregular astigmatism in keratoconus may well necessitate shorter working distances to increase magnification, as in the case of uncorrected regular astigmatism. It would thus be important to prescribed as little minus power as possible for the distance prescription and to give a plus addition for excessive near work. This is especially so for those cases where there is a significant drop in the visual acuity, since these patients are apt to work at an even shorter working distance, predisposing to the effects of myopia and 2° PMA.

It would also be important to ensure that the maximum WTR or least possible ATR cylinder is prescribed which gives adequate vision. Good visual hygiene would be especially important to keratoconics. Other important associations between MA and keratoconus also exist that are beyond the scope of this paper.






Paper 1 - Meridional (Astigmatic) Accommodation  Abstract

Physiology of Meridional Accommodation (A) Ciliary Muscle Action and Innervations
(B) Corneal Changes due to Ciliary Muscle Action
(C) Theory of Initiation of Meridional Accommodation

Clinical Implications of Meridional Accommodation


(A) Astigmatic Changes Related to WTR Corneal Toricity (i) Latent Astigmatism
(ii) Primary Accommodative Astigmatism (PAA)       (B) Reflex or 2°PMA and Induced ATR Astigmatic Changes
(C) Eye Preference and Meridional Accommodation (i) 1° PMA and Eye Preference
(ii) 2° PMA and Eye Preference (D) Proactive Prescribing for Presbyopia (i) Phakic Presbyopes
(ii) Pseudophakes and ATR Corneal Changes (E) Refractive Techniques and MA (i) Balancing Meridional Accommodation
(ii) Binocular Test of Cylinder Power (F) Further Clinical Subject Areas and Meridional Accommodation (i) Preventing Induced Oblique Astigmatism in Children
(ii) Low Vision
(iii) Keratoconus
(iv) Hard Contact Lenses
(v) PRK and PARK (Photorefractive Astigmatic Keratectomy)



Paper 2 - Common Chronic (Infective) Conjunctivitis and Nasal Rinsing

Paper 3 - Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma

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