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EYE ADVICE: Professional Papers


Part I Physiology of Meridional Accommodation  

by Kon Zagoritis BscOptom FVCO

MA can be broadly defined as a non-spherical change in the accommodation of an eye. Normally, this action is purposeful, and the lenticular accommodation produced is directed towards opposing "with the rule"(WTR) corneal toricity. This is the most common form of corneal toricity from about the second year of life up to the third to fourth decades of life. (Woodruff 1971 and Lyle 1971). 

MA has been a most controversial subject ever since Dobrowolsky first wrote about it in 1868. Several authors followed around the turn of the century, notably Martin, who is referred to by Fletcher (1951). There have since been only occasional reports which are mentioned by Fletcher and by Brzezinski (1982) in their reviews of the subject.






Paper 1 - Meridional (Astigmatic) Accommodation  Abstract

Physiology of Meridional Accommodation (A) Ciliary Muscle Action and Innervations
(B) Corneal Changes due to Ciliary Muscle Action
(C) Theory of Initiation of Meridional Accommodation

Clinical Implications of Meridional Accommodation


(A) Astigmatic Changes Related to WTR Corneal Toricity (i) Latent Astigmatism
(ii) Primary Accommodative Astigmatism (PAA)       (B) Reflex or 2°PMA and Induced ATR Astigmatic Changes
(C) Eye Preference and Meridional Accommodation (i) 1° PMA and Eye Preference
(ii) 2° PMA and Eye Preference (D) Proactive Prescribing for Presbyopia (i) Phakic Presbyopes
(ii) Pseudophakes and ATR Corneal Changes (E) Refractive Techniques and MA (i) Balancing Meridional Accommodation
(ii) Binocular Test of Cylinder Power (F) Further Clinical Subject Areas and Meridional Accommodation (i) Preventing Induced Oblique Astigmatism in Children
(ii) Low Vision
(iii) Keratoconus
(iv) Hard Contact Lenses
(v) PRK and PARK (Photorefractive Astigmatic Keratectomy)



Paper 2 - Common Chronic (Infective) Conjunctivitis and Nasal Rinsing

Paper 3 - Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma

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